Program - Day 1

Monday, 27th April 2020

Overview | Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3

📖 Conference Proceedings available here

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Session 1: Registration / SETUP

Session 2: Welcome Session

Welcome message from general chairs.

Chair: Luis Almeida

Session 3: Keynote Speaker - Jerker Delsing (Lulea University of Technology, Sweden)

Keynote "Interoperability-the Enabler of Production Automation"

Chair: Frank Golatowski

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Market predictions points to System of Systems integration as the huge market pull for the electronics, components and software industry. Market growth of 8-22 times are predicted until 2025. Key to this growth are embedded system interoperability and simplicity of interoperability engineering for service exchanges between any embedded system participating in System of Systems solutions. Further such interoperability and integration need to be managed and re-engineered in run-time which is in clear contrast to todays solutions that are engineered at design time. Thus autonomous engineering of interoperability solutions in run-time is of core interest. A current trend to achieve such run-time manageable System of Systems solutions is the usage of interoperable micro services whose interaction can be orchestrated and re-orchestrated in run-time to achieve desired and new functionalities meeting market requirements. Here other dimensions apart for functionalities, like e.g. security and maintenance will impose correlated and non-correlated constrains. Yet another dimension is micro-service business, implementation and execution. Here micro-services will be owned by different stakeholders who need to integrate machine executed business transactions into their companies and associated administrative and legal structures.

Session 4: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 5: Time Sensitive Networks and Applications

Chair: Paolo Ferrari

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Scaling TSN Scheduling for Factory Automation Networks

David Hellmanns, Alexander Glavackij, Jonathan Falk, Frank Duerr, René Hummen and Stephan Kehrer
Presenter: David Hellmanns

Industry 4.0 and the vision of smart factories drive the need for real-time communication. Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) augments the IEEE Std 802.1Q with a family of mechanisms enabling real-time communication. One of the key mechanisms is the Time-Aware Shaper (TAS) implementing a TDMA scheme on a traffic class basis, but with proper synchronization it can even be used to schedule individual frames or streams. With this capability, the network can guarantee communication deadlines, bounded latency, and bounded jitter. However, for these guarantees a system-wide schedule needs to be calculated, which is an NP-hard problem. Current approaches are mainly based on constraint programming and optimization problems, and, therefore do not scale well for larger topologies and number of streams. In this paper, our contribution is twofold: first, we propose a scheduling model for converged networks supporting different traffic types and, secondly, we introduce a novel procedure for schedule planning of isochronous traffic which exploits the hierarchical structure of factory networks. To this end, we split the network into sub-networks and use a two-stage approach based on a heuristic and tracing. Our evaluation shows that the new scheduling approach outperforms the reference scheduler by more than two orders of magnitude with regard to execution time.

Window-Based Time-Sensitive Message Transmission in IEEE 802.1Qbv TSN for Industrial Applications

Niklas Reusch, Luxi Zhao, Silviu Craciunas and Paul Pop
Presenter: Niklas Reusch

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Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) comprises a set of amendments introducing real-time aspects to the IEEE 802.1 Ethernet standard. In particular, IEEE 802.1Qbv defines a Time-Aware Shaper (TAS) mechanism that enforces a time-based sending of frames at the egress queues according to a predefined global schedule. While different scheduling policies in TSN aim to supply corresponding quality-of-service (QoS) according to requirements of industrial applications, their application differences in practical deployment scenarios are rarely emphasized. This paper aims to provide a basis for comparison of different traffic scheduling mechanisms under different configurations of TSN networks. Moreover, the paper proposes a novel, more flexible window-based scheduling algorithm which removes the previously required isolation constraints for Scheduled Traffic (ST) by integrating worst-case delay analysis to guarantee bounded latency.

Controller of Controllers Architecture for Management of Heterogeneous Industrial Networks

Frimpong Ansah, Santiago Soler Perez Olaya, Dennis Krummacker, Christoph Fischer, Alexander Winkel, Rene Guillaume, Lukasz Wisniewski, Marco Ehrlich, Waseem Manderawi, Henning Trsek, Hermann de Meer, Martin Wollschlaeger, Hans Dieter Schotten and Jürgen Jasperneite
Presenter: Santiago Soler Perez Olaya

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Increasing heterogeneity of industrial network systems is a fact and the chances that in the future one communication standard will be able to fulfill the requirements of all possible applications are utopian. With the increasing number of communication systems, their management, configuration, and maintenance becomes a significant issue. Additionally, due to the increasing amount of network services and traffic, the management of available network resources and the possibility of delivering certain levels of communication quality of service, especially across different network domains becomes a big challenge. Therefore, in this paper a Controller of Controllers (CoC) concept for management of heterogeneous industrial networks is proposed. The concept is designed to support still widely spread legacy fieldbus systems, different Ethernet-based industrial solutions, and the potentially upcoming network technologies. The goal is achieved by leveraging on the state-of-the-art architectural concepts, such as software-defined networks, which allows for integration of abstract models in network management. The concept is described, implemented, and demonstrated by a working demonstrator for a heterogeneous system of fieldbus and Ethernet-based time-sensitive networks.

Automatic Configuration of a TSN Network for SDC-based Medical Device Networks

Benjamin Rother, Martin Kasparick, Eike Schweißguth, Frank Golatowski and Dirk Timmermann
Presenter: Benjamin Rother

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Today's operating rooms consist of a multitude of medical devices. Nowadays, the interconnection of these devices is manufacturer-dependent. To overcome this lack of interoperability, the new IEEE 11073 Service-oriented Device Connectivity (SDC) family of standards has been developed. Plenty of use cases take advantages from the interconnection of medical devices among each other, based on SDC. In this paper, we focus on time-critical use-cases, like the activation of a high-frequency surgical device to emit power at the instrument triggered by a networked foot switch. The execution of such remote control operations, are dependent on deterministic data transmission. To fulfill these requirements we propose the usage of the new Time-sensitive Networking (TSN) standards IEEE 802.1. The combination of SDC and TSN enables semantic interoperability and hard real-time communication at the same network, based on standards. We provide a new approach to automatically configure the underlying TSN network by means of the medical devices'self-description according to the SDC family of standards. Our approach shows that the required information for configuring the TSN network can be extracted from the self-description.

Session 6: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 7: SS1:Trustworthiness and Security Focused Wireless Industrial IoT Networks

Chair: Hans-Peter Bernhard

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Lifetime Security Concept for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks

Leander Hoermann, Christian Kastl, Hans-Peter Bernhard, Peter Priller and Andreas Springer
Presenter: Leander Hoermann

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Secure wireless communication is essential for most industrial applications. The secure and reliable control of processes as well as the data integrity of measured values are key targets in these applications. The industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) tries to connect an increasing number of sensors wirelessly. The wireless sensors form wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, wireless sensor nodes are exposed to various security threats ranging from physical modification on the device itself to remote attacks via the communication channel. It is important to secure the complete lifetime of the wireless sensor nodes and other system components. This includes the production phase, shipping, preparation phase and operational phase. This paper presents a lifetime security concept for a wireless sensor network applied in automotive test beds. In this application scenario, the wireless sensor nodes are used to capture various temperatures in an automotive unit under test. In order to indicate the current state of trustworthiness of the system, a trustworthiness indicator is implemented which is shown to the user. An evaluation of the increase of power consumption caused by an encrypted communication is negligible and can be expected to be provided by the wireless sensor node's power supply without reducing the node lifetime.

Tightening up security in low power deterministic networks

Walter Tiberti, Bruno Vieira, Ricardo Severino, Harrison Kurunathan and Eduardo Tovar
Presenters: Walter Tiberti, Harrison Kurunathan

YouTube Video

The unprecedented pervasiveness of IoT systems is pushing this technology into increasingly stringent domains. Such application scenarios become even more challenging due to the demand for encompassing the interplay between safety and security. The IEEE 802.15.4 DSME MAC behavior aims at addressing such systems by providing additional deterministic, synchronous multi-channel access support. However, despite the several improvements over the previous versions of the protocol, the standard lacks a complete solution to secure communications. In this front, we propose the integration of TAKS, an hybrid cryptography scheme, over a standard DSME network. In this paper, we describe the system architecture for integrating TAKS into DSME with minimum impact to the standard, and we venture into analysing the overhead of having such security solution over application delay and throughput. After a performance analysis, we learn that it is possible to achieve a minor impact of 1% to 14% on top of the expected network delay, depending on the platform used, while still guaranteeing strong security support over the DSME network.

Energy-efficient Link Capacity Overprovisioning in Time Slotted Channel Hopping NetworksBest Paper Award

Gianluca Cena, Stefano Scanzio, Lucia Seno, Adriano Valenzano and Claudio Zunino
Presenter: Gianluca Cena

YouTube Video

TSCH is emerging as a reliable access mechanism for wireless sensor networks that, thanks to time slotting, suits the needs of battery-powered devices deployed in industrial scenarios. To take into account the traffic needs of the different links in a mesh network and the related variability, in such a way to prevent instability and buffer overruns, overprovisioning can be exploited. It consists in allocating more cells than strictly needed for communication between a node and its neighbors. Unfortunately, overprovisioning in TSCH leads to higher power consumption, because of idle listening. In this paper, two approaches for saving energy are proposed, which temporarily disable listening when no packets are available at the transmitter. Such mechanisms show good backward compatibility with existing TSCH devices, and may coexist with them.

Session 8: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 9: Work-in-Progress I

Chair: Hany El Sayed

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Work-in-Progress: Semantic Knowledge Base as a Solution for Heterogeneous Industrial Network Management

Mainak Majumder, Santiago Soler Perez Olaya, Marco Ehrlich, Lukasz Wisniewski and Jürgen Jasperneite
Presenter: Mainak Majumder

YouTube Video

The evolution of networking technologies in the recent decade exerted a colossal impact on the field of the industrial communication sector. It adopted a multitude of different standards and technologies in order to cope with the diverse requirements of industrial applications. The Reference Architecture Model for Industry 4.0 (RAMI 4.0) brings the Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) inside the industry premise which made the boundaries between the information and operational technologies (IT & OT) obsolete. This, in turn, introduces the problem of interoperability due to the integration of multiple industrial protocols and technologies from different automation networks. The aim of this paper is to investigate this interoperability problem of heterogeneous network management and propose a semantic knowledge base as a solution to it. It also provides a set of generic interface function description for data acquisition.

Work-in-Progress: Modeling of real-time communication for industrial distributed automation systems

Friederike Bruns, Wolfgang Nebel, Jörg Walter, Kim Grüttner
Presenter: Friederike Bruns

YouTube Video

Real-time communication of distributed automationsystems come with many challenges as there is no common timebasis. Often a periodic execution of applications is consideredwhich leads to time phenomena like drifts or jitter. Thus, thistype of communication requires observance and enforcement ofreal-time properties to guarantee reliability of distributed systems.New industrial technologies like Time-Sensitive Networking(TSN) and the IEC 61499 standard provide support to conquerupcoming challenges. Therefore, we are using these jointly withcontract-based design to propose a design methodology forverification of real-time communication in IEC 61499 systems.We implemented a simulation-based verification environment andperformed postmortem trace-based verification against timingspecifications. The evaluation confirms the possibility of integratingour proposed representation for non-local communicationinto IEC 61499 for analyzing time behavior of applications.

Work-in-Progress: Layering Concerns for the Analysis of Credit-Based Shaping in IEEE 802.1 TSN

Hamid Hassani, Pieter J. L. Cuijpers and Reinder J. Bril
Presenter: Hamid Hassani

YouTube Video

Flow control is of particular importance in TSN networks, where timeliness of messages is guaranteed through several types of traffic shaping. This has given rise to a number of papers discussing the worst-case response time analysis of, in particular, the credit-based traffic shaping approach. In this work-in-progress paper, we concern ourselves with the possibility that traffic shaping can be implemented in different layers of the protocol stack, in particular the PHY and MAC layers. We argue that the analysis performed in literature is only applicable for a PHY layer interpretation, but cannot be readily used in the context of higher layer implementations. In particular, in a MAC layer implementation of credit-based shaping, some of the basic properties of credit that are crucial for the analysis, are no longer valid after overhead is added by the PHY layer. As an ongoing effort, we plan to revisit the eligible interval analysis of \cite{Cao} with an adaptation to the MAC layer.

Work-in-Progress: Assessing supply/demand-bound based schedulability tests for wireless sensor-actuator networks

Miguel Gutiérrez Gaitán, Patrick M. Yomsi, Pedro M. Santos and Luis Almeida
Presenter: Miguel Gutiérrez Gaitán

YouTube Video

The rising adoption of wireless technologies in the Industry 4.0. and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has stressed the need for schedulability validation at system design-time. In this context, the demand-based schedulability tests have recently been proposed in the literature. This work revisits two well-established techniques borrowed from the multi-processor scheduling theory, namely the demand-bound-function (dbf) and the forced-forward-demand-bound-function (ffdbf), and evaluates their performances when adapted to the field of wireless sensor-actuator networks. Simulation experiments when varying network configurations confirm the equal or better accuracy of ffdbf over dbf to estimate both network demand and schedulability. In future work, we aim at building upon these promising results in order to design novel admission control and adaptation strategies that improve network schedulability under varying workload conditions.

Work-in-Progress: Usage of clustering algorithms for analysis of radio maps for localization using directed antennasBest Work-in-Progress Paper Award

Roland Stenzl, Stefan Wilker, Thilo Sauter, Anetta Nagy, Thomas Bigler and Albert Treytl
Presenter: Roland Stenzl

YouTube Video

Common localization approaches are usually based on omni-directional antennas. There are various algorithmic methods, all of which assume a strictly uniform radiation in all directions. But in general, the output characteristics of these (normally omni-directional) antennas are not completely omni-directional or even highly directional depending on the specific design. This article investigates the use of clustering algorithms to identify different areas of a joint signal parameters that can be used for a RSS-based localization method. Different clustering algorithms are investigated and their properties are compared to optimally cluster RSS maps for localization applications. In particular, their score for cluster quality and their execution speed relevant for deployment in embedded systems and for real-time applications has been evaluated.

Work-in-Progress: RSSI-Based Presence Detection in IndustrialWireless Sensor NetworksBest Work-in-Progress Presentation

Hans-Peter Bernhard, Julian Karoliny, Bernhard Etzlinger and Andreas Springer
Presenter: Hans-Peter Bernhard

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We propose to add a monitoring system consisting of so-called path- and guard nodes to industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), to increase the security level by using receive signal strength indicator (RSSI) measurements. Via these measurements, the monitoring system determines the presence of a mobile sensor node in a predefined area, which can be used to handle access rights and to increase automation capabilities in industrial applications. We add this monitoring system to an IWSN based on the EPhESOS protocol, which has a high degree of flexibility to meet industrial requirements in different applications throughout the lifetime of a sensor node while enabling energy-autonomous operation. Two practical machine learning algorithms for RSSI-based presence detection are presented, namely a support vector machine and a neural network algorithm. They are evaluated in an automotive example and tested for their robustness against malicious attacks. Additionally, a method to find the best node locations of the monitoring system is presented.

Overview | Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3