Program - Day 2

Tuesday, 28th April 2020

📷 Check here this day's photos

Overview | Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3

📖 Conference Proceedings available here

Watch all presentations online here

Session 10: Registration / SETUP

Session 11: Keynote Speaker Pascal Thubert (CISCO, Sophia-Antipolis, France)

Keynote "Towards Reliable and Available Wireless"

Chair: Ahlem Mifdaoui

YouTube Video

Deterministic Networking is an attempt to mostly eliminate congestion loss for a committed bandwidth with a guaranteed worst-case end-to-end latency, even when co-existing with best-effort traffic in a shared network. Wireless networks operate on a shared medium where uncontrolled interference, including the self-induced multipath fading, adds another dimension to the effects of statistical multiplexing that affect the delivery. Leveraging diversity in the spatial, time, code, and frequency domains can alleviate those effects by and provide a Reliable and Available service while preserving energy and optimizing the use of the shared spectrum. Reliable and Available Wireless (RAW) is a new effort and a new Working Group at the IETF that extends DetNet to approach end-to-end deterministic performances in a network with scheduled wireless segments, and possibly frequency/time-sharing physical resources with stochastic traffic. While the generic Problem Statement for DetNet applies to both wireless and wired, the media are fundamentally different at the PHY level, and the skills and methods involved in achieving RAW will differ from those used on wires.

Session 12: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 13: SS2: Automation Systems and Critical Infrastructures

Chair: Paulo Simões

YouTube PlayList

Semantic Trajectory Planning on the Edge for Optimized Context-Aware Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots

Tim Albert Klaas, Jens Lambrecht and Eugen Funk
Presenter: Jens Lambrecht

YouTube Video

Autonomous mobile transport systems are a key enabler for flexible production organization. In order to enhance the software life cycle management and the overall function range, service-based offloading of software function towards cloud and edge is a valid alternative to monolithic onboard software architectures. We introduce an approach towards an edge-computing-based improvement of the classic autonomous navigation stack in terms of considering semantic policies using visual object detection and localization. Thus, context-aware navigation in regards to safety and efficiency can be implemented, e.g. to fulfill directions of standards and guidelines for production, hospital or public domains. Our semantic path planning is implemented as an addition or as a replacement of common local planning services following a microservice approach. The semantic optimization of the initial trajectory is successfully shown in regards to the following policies: keeping to the right side of the surrounding environment, avoiding to drive near to closed doors and passing humans on the right side. In addition, we reveal implementation of further policies by adapting the optimization policies and show that the usage of edge computing in comparison to onboard computing yields performance gains.

Enabling and Optimizing MACsec for Industrial Environments

Tim Lackorzynski, Gregor Garten, Jan Sönke Huster, Stefan Köpsell and Hermann Härtig
Presenter: Tim Lackorzynski

YouTube Video

Industry 4.0 will revolutionize industrial automation. Yet, future smart factories will not be created from scratch. They will rather evolve from existing legacy installations. Consequently, also industrial networks will evolve and the result will be a mixture of new and legacy components. This will make new security mechanisms necessary, that are specifically designed for this industrial use case.
This work proposes modifications for MACsec, a new security toll for protecting communication traffic. These modifications enable MACsec to work within future industrial settings, circumventing certain drawbacks introduced by legacy networking technologies. We managed to significantly increase the performance of MACsec, even for use cases beyond the scope of this work.

Session 14: Wireless Sensor Networks

Chair: Tiago Cruz

YouTube PlayList

Alternate Marking-based Network Telemetry for Industrial WSNs

Abdulkadir Karaagac, Eli De Poorter and Jeroen Hoebeke
Presenter: Abdulkadir Karaagac

For continuous, persistent and problem-free operation of Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSN), it is critical to have visibility and awareness into what is happening on the network at any one time. Especially, for the use cases with strong needs for deterministic and real-time network services with latency and reliability guarantees, it is vital to monitor network devices continuously to guarantee their functioning, detect and isolate relevant problems and verify if all system requirements are being met simultaneously. In this context, this article investigates a light-weight telemetry solution for IWSNs, which enables the collection of accurate and continuous flow-based telemetry information, while adding no overhead on the monitored packets. The proposed monitoring solution adopts the recent Alternate Marking Performance Monitoring (AM-PM) concept and mainly targets measuring end-to-end and hop-by-hop reliability and delay performance in critical application flows. Besides, the technical capabilities and characteristics of the proposed solution are evaluated via a real-life implementation and practical experiments, validating its suitability for IWSNs.

Lighthouse Localization of Wireless Sensor Networks for Latency-Bounded, High-Reliability Industrial Automation Tasks

Felipe Rocha Campos, Craig Schindler, Brian Kilberg and Kristofer Pister
Presenter: Felipe Rocha Campos

YouTube Video

We present the results of a latency-bounded, high-reliability conveyor belt control system for a cart containing a wireless sensor node equipped with an ARM Cortex-M3 microprocessor, 802.15.4 transceiver, 9-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), and an infrared-sensitive photodiode which allows the wireless node to localize itself using a high-precision localization system for small, resource-constrained, low-cost wireless sensor nodes known as "lighthouse'' localization. The cart moves across the conveyor belt, and upon reaching a specified position sends a wireless control signal to a set of receiving nodes attached to the conveyor belt's motor to reverse direction. Using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) running on-board the cart's wireless sensor node to estimate the position and velocity of the cart, we are able to achieve 3ms response latency, equivalent to the response latency of industrial photoelectric sensors used in a related implementation. We also show the lighthouse system used in this implementation has no outlier measurements outside the 1mm error range when stationed 3 meters away from the conveyor belt. This, in addition to use of the EKF, enables high-reliability control with strong occlusion tolerance; we show the wireless sensor node is able to continue estimating its position along the conveyor belt when occluded from the lighthouse base station with a median standard deviation reported by the EKF of 0.875mm after 10 cm of occlusion compared to a median 0.109mm standard deviation of the position estimate when not occluded.

Session 15: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 16: Communication Technologies for Industry

Chair: Hassanein Amer

YouTube PlayList

Integrating Field Measurements into a Model-Based Simulator for Industrial Communication Networks

Jing Geng, Honglei Li, Mohamed Kashef, Yongkang Liu, Richard Candell and Shuvra Bhattacharyya
Presenter: Shuvra Bhattacharyya

YouTube Video

Efficient and accurate simulation methods are of increasing importance in the design and evaluation of factory communication systems. Model-based simulation methods are based on formal models that govern the interactions between components and subsystems in the systems that are being simulated. The formal models facilitate systematic integration across the system, and enable powerful methods for analysis and optimization of system performance. However conventional simulation approaches utilize communication channel models that do not fully reflect the characteristics and diversity of industrial communication channels. To help bridge this gap, we develop in this paper new methods for channel model construction for link-layer simulation that systematically incorporate field measurements of wireless communication channels from industrial networks, and derive corresponding channel modeling library components. The generated library components capture channel characteristics in the form of lookup tables, which can be flexibly integrated into system-level simulators or co-simulation tools. We integrate our new table-generation methods into a model-based co-simulator that jointly simulates the interactions among process flows, physical layouts of workcells, and communication channels in factory systems that are integrated with wireless networks. Experimental results using our lookup-table-augmented co-simulator demonstrate the utility of the proposed methods for flexibly and accurately integrating realistic industrial network channel conditions into simulation processes.

Generation of OPC UA Companion Specification with Eclipse Modeling Framework

Sebastian Friedl, Christian von Arnim, Armin Lechler and Alexander Verl
Presenter: Sebastian Friedl

Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is a relevant technology in the field of machine-to-machine communication that defines data transport protocol and standardizes the information modeling. Instead of defining a generalized world model, domain-specific models enable interoperability. These domain specific models can be developed and released as Companion Specifications. More than 40 Companion Specifications are currently in development or already released. In this paper the current approaches to generate an OPC UA information model or an OPC UA Companion Specification are analyzed. A new modeling tooling based on the Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) is presented. With this tooling the potential of a model-driven approach for the creation of the information model and the structured part of the descriptive text document of a Companion Specification is demonstrated.

Plug & Play Retrofitting Approach for Data Integration to the Cloud

Santosh Kumar Panda, Lukasz Wisniewski, Marco Ehrlich, Mainak Majumder and Jürgen Jasperneite
Presenter: Santosh Kumar Panda

YouTube Video

Driven by rapid digitalisation, production systems are becoming more flexible and adaptable with the help of emerging concepts like the Internet of Things (IoT) and Industry 4.0. Often, these transformations are not fully implemented in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) due to the replacement cost of existing machines. The aim of this paper is to develop a Plug & Play retrofitting platform, where Industry 4.0 compliant sensor systems can be attached, detected, and configured automatically to the existing production environment. The purpose of the retrofitting is to integrate the sensor system with a cloud platform that would provide persistent storage for sensor data as well as the functionalities to perform monitoring, analysis, and predictive learning.

Machine Learning-Aided Classification of LoS/NLoS Radio Links in Industrial IoT

Andrea Bombino, Simone Grimaldi, Aamir Mahmood and Mikael Gidlund
Presenter: Andrea Bombino

YouTube Video

Wireless sensors and actuators networks are an essential element to realize industrial IoT (IIoT) systems, yet their diffusion is hampered by the complexity of ensuring reliable communication in industrial environments. A significant problem with that respect is the unpredictable fluctuation of a radio-link between the line-of-sight (LoS) and the non-line-of-sight (NLoS) state due to time-varying environments. The impact of link-state over reception performance, suggests that link-state variations should be monitored at run-time, enabling dynamic adaptation of the transmission scheme on a link-basis to safeguard QoS. Starting from the assumption that accurate channel-sounding is unsuitable for low-complexity IIoT devices, we investigate the feasibility of channel-state identification for platforms with limited sensing capabilities. In this context, we evaluate the performance of different supervised-learning algorithms with variable complexity for the inference of the radio-link state. Our approach provides fast link-diagnostics by performing online classification based on a single received packet. Furthermore, the method takes into account the effects of limited sampling frequency, bit-depth, and moving average filtering, which are typical to hardware-constrained platforms. The results of an experimental campaign in both industrial and office environments show promising classification accuracy of LoS/NLoS radio links. Additional tests indicate that the proposed method retains good performance even with low-resolution RSSI-samples available in low-cost WSN nodes, which facilitates its adoption in real IIoT networks.

Session 17: BREAK / Preparing next Session

Session 18: Work-in-Progress II

Chair: Pedro Santos

YouTube PlayList

Work-in-Progress: A Formal Approach to Verify Fault Tolerance in Industrial Network Systems

Alessio Sacco, Guido Marchetto, Riccardo Sisto and Fulvio Valenza
Presenter: Alessio Sacco

YouTube Video

Distributed systems are extremely difficult to design and implement correctly because they must handle both system correctness and device failures. Most of the work focuses on the first aspect, and in particular, on the correctness of security and network configuration. The large demand for availability and reliability for critical services is actually pushing new architectures that tolerate failures, but a-priori analysis of redundancy and recovery features is still limited. To this end, we present a framework to design and formally verify the persistence of network properties, even in case of failures. The solution considers both nodes and links failure, and it is based on a formal model that takes both network topology and network device configurations into account. In contrast, most of the existing approaches only consider network topology. By analyzing the formal model, the framework can check whether the specified network services are still available after failures, and in case of success, it outputs a possible configuration of the devices to be used for automatic recovery.

Work-in-Progress: A Novel Fault Tolerant Scheme for a Wireless Modular Prosthetic Limb

Mayar Medhat, Ramez Daoud and Hassanein Amer
Presenter: Mayar Medhat

YouTube Video

This paper documents a study of a wireless architecture for the Johns Hopkins modular prosthetic limb and it also presents a novel scheme to enhance the architecture's reliability. Nowadays, the advanced prosthetic limbs, which are based on NCSs (Network Control Systems), are wired systems which are subjected to the wear and tear problem as well as the mobility limitation issue. Therefore, wired models can be replaced by Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) which can offer the same function and prevent the wear and tear and mobility problem. Moreover, medical applications such as the prosthetic arms are critical, real time and life-saving applications that require high reliability as faults in such systems can cause severe consequences. The well-known Modular Prosthetic Limb (MPL) designed by Johns Hopkins applied physics laboratory is revisited as it is the base of this study. The wireless architecture of the Johns Hopkins arm is simulated using RIVERBED. In addition, a fault-tolerant model for the same architecture is also simulated. Both, the fault free and faulty scenarios undergo interference analysis as well as a 95% confidence analysis. The simulation results have shown zero packet loss and the end-to-end delays are within the required range; hence, the system requirements are satisfied.

Work-in-Progress: Triple Event Upset Tolerant Area-Efficient FPGA-Based System for Space Applications And Nuclear Plants

Beatrice Shokry, Dina Mahmoud, Hassanein Amer, Maha Shatta, Gehad Alkady, Ramez Daoud, Ihab Adly, Manar Shaker and Tarek Refaat
Presenter: Beatrice Shokry

YouTube Video

This paper focuses on FPGA-based systems in the context of space applications and nuclear plants which are extremely harsh environments. In such environments, the probability of occurrence of Multiple Event Upsets (MEUs) is not negligible. Conventional fault-tolerant architectures (such as Triple Modular Redundancy) will NOT be able to handle Triple Event Upsets (TEUs) for example. A fault-tolerant with only six identical modules is developed in this paper even though, intuitively, at least seven modules are required for a system to recover from a TEU. It is proven that the proposed system can fully recover from any sequence of Single, Double or Triple Event Upsets by using Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration. If a hard fault affects one of the modules, the system will lose some of its fault tolerance but may be able to continue operating correctly depending on the nature of the next fault.

Work-in-Progress: Compromising Security of Real-time Ethernet Devices by means of Selective Queue Saturation Attack

Paolo Ferrari, Emiliano Sisinni, Abusayeed Saifullah, Raphael Machado, Alan Oliveira De Sá and Max Felser
Presenter: Paolo Ferrari

YouTube Video

The industrial control systems (ICS) are using Real-Time Ethernet (RTE) protocols for many years. Today, Ethernet based control systems are widely used in industries. The Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) initiative will definitely push their further diffusion. With the introduction of Industry 4.0, production machines and their components have been connected to the Internet. Currently adopted RTE protocols do not require authentication, and hence may exchange data also with potentially malicious partners. In this paper, a selective Denial of Service (DoS) attack is presented. The proposed Selective Queue Saturation Attack (SQSA) is aimed to jam the message queue of the RTE communication stack in selected devices. The SQSA minimizes the chances of being detected by keeping its requirements (in term generated traffic) as low as possible. The SQSA has been applied to a real scenario based on PROFINET. The results of the use case demonstrate: the feasibility of the proposed attack; the reduced footprint compared to known DoS attacks (more than one thousand times less); and the selectivity of the attack, which can disrupt the real-time behavior of even a single target node inside the RTE network.

Work-in-Progress: Voting Framework for Distributed Real-Time Ethernet based Dependable and Safe Systems

Hans Dermot Doran
Presenter: Hans Dermot Doran

YouTube Video

In many industrial sectors such as factory automation and process control sensor redundancy is required to ensure reliable and highly-available operation. Measured values from N-redundant sensors are typically subjected to some voting scheme to determine a value which is used in further processing. In this paper we present a voting framework which allows the sensors and the voting scheme to be configured at system-configuration time. We describe the structure of the voting system and the design and verification of the framework. We argue the applicability of this sub-system based on a successful prototype implementation.

Work-in-Progress: Towards an International Data Spaces Connector for the Internet of Things

Michael Nast, Benjamin Rother, Frank Golatowski, Dirk Timmermann, Jens Leveling, Christian Olms and Christian Nissen
Presenter: Michael Nast

YouTube Video

In the age of digitalisation, data protection plays an important role. Data is created, modified and shared over the Internet between data owners and data users. A key issue in this context is the respect of data sovereignty. To keep data sovereignty the International Data Spaces (IDS) Reference Architecture has been developed. In this regard, Internet of Things (IoT) devices such as sensors can play an important role for providing data. By default, however, an IoT device is not capable of integrating directly into the IDS. We propose an approach to enable the IDS for vendor independent IoT devices, using an open interoperability standard for the IoT specified by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).

Overview | Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3